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National Safety Foundation: “2011 NSF International Household Germ Study.”
American Dental Association: “Toothbrush Care: Cleaning, Storing, and Replacement.”
CDC: “Preventing Seasonal Flu Illness,” “Show Me the Science: How to Wash Your Hands,” “Show Me the Science: When & How to Use Hand Sanitizer.”
Fisher-Price: “What’s the Best Way to Clean Baby Toys?”
Julian, TR. “Virus transfer between fingerpads and fomites,” Journal of Applied Microbiology.
Hewitt, K. “Office Space Bacterial Abundance and Diversity in Three Metropolitan Areas,” PLOS One.
Mayo Clinic: “How long to cold and flu germs stay alive after infected people cough or sneeze?”
KidsHealth.org: “Common Cold.”
Reviewed by Michael W. Smith, MD on July 19, 2021
This tool does not provide medical advice. See additional information.
THIS TOOL DOES NOT PROVIDE MEDICAL ADVICE. It is intended for general informational purposes only and does not address individual circumstances. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be relied on to make decisions about your health. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the WebMD Site. If you think you may have a medical emergency, immediately call your doctor or dial 911.